Expedition Bali offers a variety of tours that encompass history, nature and geology, all complimented by some of the most breathtaking panoramic views of natural wonders. Expedition Bali is trademarked by customer service, environmental responsibility and a top-tier commitment to guide education and passenger safety.

EXPEDITION BALI

Through our commitment to the environment, empowering the local people, and client-oriented approach, Expedition Bali offers the highest level of service and satisfaction for adventurers the world over, with tours for every budget.

We offer once in a lifetime adventures, some of the greatest fun, and everlasting memories.

Established in 2012, Expedition Bali has been thrilling visitors as Kintamani’s premier off-road tour company, the only licensed tour company to responsibly four-wheel drive in the UNESCO Geopark.

Expedition Bali offers a variety of tours that encompass history, nature and geology, all complimented by some of the most breathtaking panoramic views of natural wonders that you will ever likely see with your own eyes.

We offer fun, education, and everlasting memories!

WHAT IS A CALDERA?

Caldera volcanos are the “extreme volcanos.”  These are the most powerful and catastrophic types of volcanoes in a category by themselves because of the unique way in which they form.  Caldera volcanoe are the largest on earth, with some calderas measuring from 15 to 100 kilometres wide.

This type of volcano is shaped more like an inverse volcano.  An enormous magma chamber bulges up beneath the ground from the extremely high pressures of the trapped gases within.  Ring-shaped cracks form outward from the magma chamber toward the surface; and, these act as relief valves for the magma to escape.  Once the accumulated pressure has been sufficiently released through a series of extremely powerful pyroclastic and plinian eruptions, the ground above the magma chamber subsides or caves in, leaving a large depression.

Scientists are just beginning to understand these types of volcanos and have only recently identified the characteristics of this type of eruption.  Since this type of eruption has not occurred anytime during recorded history there have been no human witnesses to record observations of this type of event.  The lack of a real-world example makes it even more difficult for scientists to study this type of volcano and very little about them is understood.  But, from the evidence that scientists have been able to gather about caldera eruptions in earth’s past, all signs point to events so cataclysmic that they may have changed the course of the evolution of life on earth.

MOUNT BATUR

Mount Batur (Gunung Batur) is an active volcano located at the center of two concentric calderas north west of Mount Agung.  The south east side of the larger 10 by 13 kilometre caldera contains a caldera lake.  The inner 7.5-kilometre-wide caldera, which was formed during emplacement of the Bali ignimbrite (or fiery rock dust cloud), has been dated at about 23,670 and 28,500 years ago.

The first documented eruption of Mount Batur was in 1804 and the most recent was in 2000.

Mount Batur is an important component of the Pacific “Ring of Fire” with its double calderas and crescent-shaped volcanic lake (7 km long, 1.5 km wide).  Located 1,031 metres above sea level, the Batur Caldera has been called the finest caldera in the world.

The uniqueness of the area’s geology of volcanic origin; endemic flora and fauna; and, the religious and cultural significance of Mount Batur for the Balinese is a perfect combination of different heritages of the Earth.

MOUNT AGUNG

Mount Agung or Gunung Agung lies southeast of Mount Batur volcano in Bali.  Gunung Agung stratovolcano is the highest point on Bali.  It dominates the surrounding area, influencing the climate, especially rainfall patterns.  From a distance, the mountain appears to be perfectly conical.  From the peak of the mountain, it is possible to see the peak of Mount Rinjani on the nearby island of Lombok, to the east, although both mountains are frequently covered in clouds.

The Balinese people believe that Mount Agung is a replica of Mount Meru, the central axis of the universe.  The most important temple on Bali, Pura Besakih, is located high on the slopes of Gunung Agung.

Gunung Agung is an active volcano, with a large and deep crater that occasionally emits smoke and ash.  The last eruption began in 2017 and is continuing into 2018, classifying the volcano as currently active.

 

KAWAH IJEN

The Ijen volcano complex is a group of composite volcanoes in the Banyuwangi Regency of East Java, Indonesia.

It is inside a larger caldera Ijen, which is about 20 kilometres wide.  The Gunung Merapi stratovolcano is the highest point of that complex.  The name “Gunung Merapi” means “mountain of fire” in the Indonesian language.

West of Gunung Merapi is the Ijen volcano, which has a one-kilometre-wide turquoise-coloured acidic crater lake.  The lake is the site of a labour-intensive sulfur mining operation, in which sulfur-laden baskets are carried by hand from the crater floor.

The lake is recognised as the largest highly acidic crater lake in the world.  It is also a source for the river Banyupahit, resulting in highly acidic and metal-enriched river water which has a significant detrimental effect on the downstream river ecosystem.

MOUNT BROMO

Mount Bromo, or Gunung Bromo, is an active volcano and part of the Tengger massif, in East Java, Indonesia.  At 2,329 metres, it is not the highest peak of the massif, but is the most well known.  The massif area is one of the most visited tourist attractions in East Java.  The volcano belongs to the Bromo Tengger Semeru National Park.  The name of Bromo derived from Javanese pronunciation of Brahma, the Hindu creator god.

Mount Bromo sits in the middle of a plain called the “Sea of Sand” (Javanese: Segara Wedi or Indonesian: Lautan Pasir), a protected nature reserve since 1919. The typical way to visit Mount Bromo is from the nearby mountain village of Cemoro Lawang.  From there it is possible to walk to the volcano in about 45 minutes, but it is also possible to take an organised jeep tour, which includes a stop at the viewpoint on Mount Penanjakan (2,770 metres).  The viewpoint on Mount Penanjakan can also be reached on foot in about two hours.

 

MOUNT RINJANI

Mount Rinjani or Gunung Rinjani is an active volcano on the Indonesian island of Lombok.  It rises to 3,726 metres, making it the second highest volcano in Indonesia.

On the top of the volcano is a 6-by-8.5-kilometre caldera, which is filled partially by the crater lake known as Segara Anak or Anak Laut (Child of the Sea), due to the colour of its water, as blue as the sea. This lake is approximately 2,000 metres above sea level and estimated to be about 200 metres deep; the caldera also contains hot springs.  Sasak tribe and Hindu people assume the lake and the mount are sacred and some religious activities are occasionally performed in the two areas.

On 27 September 2016 14:45 WITA Rinjani erupted.  UNESCO has made Mount Rinjani Caldera a part of the Global Geoparks Network in April, 2018.

The Rinjani caldera-forming eruption is thought to have occurred in the 13th century and may have been “the most powerful volcanic blast since humans learned to write.”  The massive eruption may have triggered an episode of global cooling and failed harvests.  Before this eruption, the Segara Anak caldera was a volcanic mountain named Samalas, which was higher than Rinjani.